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November 03, 2022 - BY G Pradeep Kumar

Fingerprints in Our Everyday Contact

Every day, we come into contact with objects such as a coffee cup, a car door, and a computer keyboard. We are likely to leave our distinctive signature—in our fingerprints—every time we do so.

The Uniqueness

Fingerprints are unique to each individual. Even identical twins, who share the same DNA, have unique fingerprints. Fingerprints can be utilized for a variety of purposes, including background checks, biometric security, mass catastrophe identification, and, of course, criminal circumstances, thanks to their uniqueness.

Fingerprints Play an Important Role

For more than a century, fingerprint analysis has been used to identify criminals and solve crimes, and it remains a highly valuable tool for law enforcement. Fingerprints play an important role in assisting investigators in connecting one crime scene to another involving the same person. Detectives can use fingerprint identification to follow a criminal's record, including previous arrests and convictions, as well as make decisions about sentence, probation, parole, and pardon.

Fingerprints ridges are interesting designs, made by contact edges (raised) and wrinkles (recessed), which show up on the cushion of the fingers and thumbs. Prints from palms, toes and feet are too one of a kind; in any case, these are utilized less regularly for distinguishing proof, so this directly centres on prints from the fingers and thumbs.

The friction ridges on that particular finger are represented by the fingerprint pattern, such as the print left when an inked finger is placed against the paper. Circles, whorls, and curves are the three shapes of grinding edge designs, each with its claim set of varieties based on the shape and relationship of the edges.

To Each, His Own 

Uniqueness and persistence are the two basic concepts of fingerprint identification (permanence). No two people, including identical twins, have ever been found to have the same fingerprints. Furthermore, no one has ever been discovered with the same fingerprint on numerous fingers.

New skin cells are cemented in the current friction ridge and furrow pattern as they develop. Many people have done studies to prove this by recording the same fingerprints across decades and noticing that the traits remain the same. Attempts to remove or damage one's fingerprints will be thwarted by the new skin, unless the damage is particularly severe, in which case the new arrangement generated by the damage will now persist and be unique.

The Proof is in the Minutiae 

To perform early comparisons and include or exclude a known fingerprint from further research, analysts employ the general pattern type (loop, whorl, or arch). To match a fingerprint, the analyst compares the minutiae, or ridge characteristics, of a suspect fingerprint to the same information in a confirmed fingerprint. The fingerprints are found to be from the same individual if enough details match.

When and where is fingerprint analysis used? 

Fingerprints can be used in a variety of ways, including:

  • Providing biometric authentication (for example, to control access to secure areas or systems).
  • Identifying amnesia patients and the unidentified dead (such as victims of major disasters, if their fingerprints are on file).
  • Conducting background investigations (including applications for government employment, defence security clearance, concealed weapon permits, etc.).

In the criminal justice system, fingerprints are very essential. To aid in criminal cases, investigators and analysts can compare unknown prints gathered from a crime scene to known prints of victims, witnesses, and probable suspects. Consider the following scenario:

  • A murderer's fingerprints may be found on the suspected murder weapon.
  • The fingerprints of a bank robber may be found on a robbery note.
  • In an assault case, the perpetrator's fingerprints may have been left on the victim's skin.
  • Fingerprints may be left on a broken window pane by a thief.
  • Fingerprints of a thief may be discovered on a safe.

Furthermore, if investigators have reason to compare fingerprints or if prints from an unsolved crime pop up as a match during a database search, fingerprints can link a culprit to additional unsolved crimes. These unidentified prints can sometimes aid police in piecing together enough evidence to pinpoint the perpetrator.

In the absence of DNA, the criminal justice system relies on fingerprints to authenticate a convicted offender's identification and track their past arrests and convictions, criminal tendencies, known associates, and other pertinent information. 

Fingerprint Expert Services at SIFS India

SIFS India is a private forensic science laboratory in Delhi where a trained and competent team of experts provides services for Fingerprint examination comparison and analysis for legal purposes. Our services include Fingerprint Matching, Fingerprint DevelopmentFingerprint Software AnalysisFingerprint in DVIFingerprint for PCC, etc. For more details contact us.

Learning at SIFS INDIA

 To learn more, visit Sherlock Institute of Forensic Science India where the team of expert professionals and certified faculty provides you a great opportunity to learn forensics by attending different forensic events being organized from time to time and also by registering yourself into forensic courses and training orograms both in online and offline mode. You can also visit our YouTube channel for all the events.