In criminal investigations fingerprints is one of the oldest and most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. One of the primary goals of the investigation deals with identification. Whether the identification is that of an unknown victim or that of the perpetrator of a crime. The ridge detail developed and recovered at a crime scene and later identified by a fingerprint examiner becomes an investigative lead for the detectives assigned to the investigation.The friction ridge feature of the hands and feet is simply characterised as a fingerprint. Friction ridges have two primary functions. For starters, they enable us to grip and cling onto a variety of surfaces.They are used as a form of person identification in forensics.
The person who is in charge of processing the crime scene and recovering the latent impressions varies by department and agency across the country. The purpose of a crime scene investigator or evidence recovery technician is to identify and collect friction ridge detail that may have been deposited on a variety of surfaces at a crime scene. The crime scene investigator/technician must be familiar with the many types of ridge detail that could be deposited on the scene, as well as the surfaces that would preserve the detail and the means for recovering such deposits. Today's greatest technological difficulty is keeping up with the ever-changing surface materials.
Different word are used in different parts of the country to explain ridge detail deposit and recovery terminology and approaches. At a crime scene, there are three primary sorts of impressions that can be deposited, detected, developed if necessary, and collected.
The skin has deposits of oil and perspiration that normally coat the surface. When the hand touches the surface, some of the moisture is transferred from the hand to the object, leaving an impression of the friction ridge detail. These are referred to as latent impressions. On most surfaces the latent impressions are not readily visible. The word latent is defined as not visible. That does not mean that it is actually invisible. Using available or oblique lighting on most surfaces will reveal the impression. The impression must be enhanced or developed to be seen fully and collected. The latent fingerprints are also called invisible prints a more common phrase used by most people due to their nature as they are not visible to the backed eye without any developmental processing.
The transfer of a foreign material coating the skin of the fingers results in a patent imprint. Paint, tar, grease, blood, or ink, for example, are examples of foreign materials. The ink standards or eliminations that we as investigators obtain from persons are the best example of a patent impression. After the ink has been applied, it becomes a foreign substance that coats the individual's hands. A card is utilised as a transfer medium, becoming the object that is touched, and the patent impression is transferred. The term "patent" refers to something that is obvious or visible. Patent impressions are frequently visible and do not require any treatment. They are simply photographed, and if necessary, the item on which they are deposited is collected.
When the hands, fingers, or feet are placed into a soft rubbery type substance that will hold the impression of the ridge detail, a plastic or moulded impression is formed. A plastic or moulded impression would be put into the surface where a latent impression is deposited. Clay, wet paint, blood, and tar are examples of materials where a plastic impression could be left. Impression made of plastic or moulded material is evident and usually does not require any treatment. They are merely photographed, and the object is collected if necessary, with the possibility of being caste.
SIFS India is a private forensic science laboratory in Delhi where a trained and competent team of experts provides services for Fingerprint examination comparison and analysis for legal purposes. Our services include Fingerprint Matching, Fingerprint Development, Fingerprint Software Analysis, Fingerprint in DVI, Fingerprint for PCC, etc. For more details contact us.
To learn more, visit Sherlock Institute of Forensic Science India where the team of expert professionals and certified faculty provides you with a great opportunity to learn forensics by attending different forensic events being organized from time to time and also by registering yourself in forensic courses and training programs both in online and offline mode. You can also visit our YouTube channel for all the events.